Disability: The Kinds And The Psychology Behind

Remember that funky guy with multicolour hair, dangling ear rings, a pony tail, a big skull tattoo on his upper arm and a number of metallic rings on his fingers? Quite a head-turnet, right? And he seemed to enjoy all those eyes turned towards him- some in wonder, others in amusement. He basked in every bit of attention he attracted. And he knew why they all looked at him. Because he was 'different'. To be more precise, because he 'looked' different, no matter how superficially.

The fact is, we all want to be different because we crave for attention, or else, there would be little fashion left in the world. But, we want to be 'different' in a certain way, for there are people who are 'different' and find it difficult to cope with the difference of that kind. That's because there 'difference' lies in their disability.

The feeling of being deprived of some thing can some times be so gripping that the person might turn crazy over it! But, disability is not a weakness at all. It depends on the individual as to how he/ she makes it a strength to move on in life. Although disability has been classified on several criterias, below are some basic kinds of disabilities:    

Physical disability

Talking of disabilities, the first thing that comes to one's mind is physical disability including functional impairments or orthopedic deformities, amputations, cerebral palsy, neuromuscular disorders and alike. Some of the neurological disorders like spinal cord or brain injury and Parkinson’s disease are also included.

Deafness
A man is knocking at a friend's door. He yells from inside saying that he is in the bathroom and would be with him shortly. He knock again, this time urgently. The person repeats his reply. But the fellow keeps on knocking over and over again, and every time with increased vigour and force. Poor man comes out, all soaped with towel wrapped around, fuming. Then, he finds his friend standing there, smiling like a moron. His anger falls frozen when he realizes that the fellow is actually deaf. No fault, poor chap!

Deafness is quite simply defined as partial or total loss of hearing. It is primarily of two kinds- conductive and sensori-neural and conductive. Sensori-neural refers to the kind of deafness, wherein the defect is either in the cochlea (the converter of vibrations into nerve impulses) or in the communication of the nerves impulsed from cochlea to the brain. This kind of deafness occurs as one ages. Noise and loud sounds accelerate it. That's the reason why sporting shooters wear an ear protector.
   
Conductive deafness is caused when sound vibrations are prevented by something from reaching the inner ear. The cause may be as simple as wax in the ear canal or may be some kind of infection causing the perforation in the ear drum.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

This kind of disorder is characterized by persistent problems of considerable severity with attention and concentration. Being prone to distraction or impulsive behaviour is also counted as a feature of Attention Deficit Disorder. This severely reduces one's ability to focus on anything, which causes a lot of frustration at times.

Psychiatric or Psychological Disability

This refers to a number of behavioural or emotional upheavels like anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and also schizophrenia.

Specific Learning Disability (SLD)
This kind of disorder is associated with those basic neurological processes that are involved in understanding or using spoken or written language. The disorder may hamper one's listening, reading, thinking, writing, spelling, or even one's mathematical calculations. Some of such disorders as dyslexia, dyscalculia dysgraphia and dysphasia may be experienced. Learning disabilities due to visual or hearing disabilities, psychological disabilities or mental retardation are not placed in this category of disabilities.

Speech impairment
A speech impairment is a disorder of language, articulation, fluency or voice, which adversely affects communication, pre-academic or academic learning, vocational training, or social adjustment. Stammering, stuttering, laryngectomy, and aphasia are a few instances.

Visual impairment
It is a disorder due to some problem in the structure or function of the eye due to which, with best correction available, the visual acuity remains at 20/70 or less; or one's peripheral field is too constricted to allow proper vision: or there is a progressive loss of vision. Cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy are some of the examples.