Developmental Disability


A man may be born safely but may not remain safe in this complex world or society. He may develop one or more complications detrimental to his further growth and development. Developmental disability connotes disability attached to mind or body or both and which becomes increasingly visible in adulthood. It is a replacement for the word mental retardation. If a person, not able to support himself independently, lacks financial capacity for his living, learning ability, mobility, ability to care for himself or the expressive language, he is bracketed under the category of people with learning disability in Britain, intellectual disability in Australia, Europe Canada and some other countries and developmental disability in America. It may be mild or severe depending on the kind of support a person really needs.

There may be several factors responsible the developmental disability be it mental or physical or both although no similar causes can be ascertained for two different individuals. Some common causes are discussed here:

1. Brain injury or some kind of infection before or after birth may cause complications in brain leading to comprehensive disability.
2.  Lack of sufficient diet or nutritional food also causes both mental and physical disability. This kind of disability is very common in underdeveloped or developing countries but developed countries can't always be an exception to it.
3. Premature birth of a baby may also lead to any kind of retardation in a child.
4. Lack of proper health care, reaction of drugs, smoking or buzzing may be a potent cause of mental or physical impairment.

So far statistics of the retardation is concerned around 1.4 % of the people of this word are said to be suffering from developmental disabilities due to one or the other reason. But it is more common among people or countries with poor socio-economic conditions.

In some cases people with developmental disabilities show some behaviors which are called challenging behavior. These behaviors include aggressiveness like hitting, self injury, spitting on others, abnormal sexual behaviors, attention seeking attitudes, etc. These traits are potentially not safe for general public. But on the other hand mentally or physically retarded person are easily exposed to abuses of various kinds varying from emotional to sexual as well. Keeping in view of all these aspects there are various social security disability acts in different countries around the word to give protecting to these underprivileged people.